Toxicogenomics prolongs and perfects the cell culture technique. It not only tests directly detectable effects, but also, possible effects on DNA.
The cell’s DNA resulting from the experiment is then collected and tested using a DNA microarray, or chip. These DNA chips give rapid results telling us which genes are expressing themselves more or less strongly (some may even stop working).
The effects of the changes in gene expression are studied in genomics and a wide variety are already known. Therefore, it is possible to know which effects have been caused by exposure to the test substance from the DNA chip’s results. Some of these effects can even be long term ones, such as cancer.
It is important to note that toxicogenomics and cell culture experimentation are sometimes carried out on animal cells. If this research pertains to human beings then it is both nonsensical and a waste of time and money.
The results will finaly have to be transposed, at great risk, to humans when it would have been possible to use human material and data from the start.
Toxicogenomics provides fast, reliable results when carried out on human tissue, including results on long term effects.